1. cysteine. The amino acid histidine has 3 hydrogens

How is water able to be a solvent for so many
biological molecules? 

Water as has a large liquid range that aids in
its ability of being a solvent. Water has demonstrated that it can dissolve
more known substances both polar covalent molecules and ionic compounds than any
other liquid due to the polarity of each water molecule. This is accomplished
by due to the fact that the hydrogen side has a slight positive electrical
charge and the oxygen side has a slight negative charge. The water becomes
attracted to different molecules such as salt, sugars, alcohol, and most
organic molecules and disrupts the attractive force that generally hold these
molecules together and they dissolved.

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If noncovalent bonds are so much weaker than
covalent bonds, how do they stabilize large biochemical structures? 

The hydrogen bonds have directionality. It is
the aggregate strength of having multiple hydrogen bonds that help to stabilize
three dimensional structures. An example is protein folding. The hydrogen bonds
holds it together in the specific shape.

Ionic bond or electrostatic interactions that
occur between opposite electrical charges of a metal and nonmetal. Some ions
arrange in repeating 3-D patterns that stabilizes the structure.

Van der Waals bond is formed from an electrostatic
charge from another adjacent atom. In proteins structures the van der Waal’s
causes slight differences between the dipole moment of 2 parts of the proteins
causing them to magnetically link together and causing them to fold.


Give 8 examples of key functional groups found in

In our text, the 8 key functions groups found
in biochemistry are, hydrophobic, hydroxyl, aldehyde, keto, carboxyl, amino,
phosphate and sulfhydryl that are essential for biochemical function of

1. Hydrophobic group is a methyl group.

2. Hydroxyl group forms alcohols that are used
as fuels and    solvents.

                         3. Keto group forms ketones. An example is

4. Carboxyl group is made of carboxylic acids.
An example is acetic acid.

                         5. Amino group forms amines. An example is

6. Phosphate group forms phosphates. An
example is 3- phosphoglyceric acid.

7. Sulfhydryl group consists of thiols that
are sulfa atoms bonded    to hydrogen. An
example is cysteine.

amino acid histidine has 3 hydrogens that could be titrated with pK values
of 1.82, 6.0, and 9.17. Describe the pH ranges in which histidine
could be used as a buffer and explain why histidine might be a good
candidate for buffering the intracellular pH of cells. 

Dependent of the location that the pH was
taken in the human body the cell pH is around 7.2 or in another text 6.8 to 7.4.
When evaluation the amino acid histidine, it has 3 pK values that are 1.82,
6.0, and 9.7. The pK value of histidine of 6.0 is suitable buffer for a cell pH
of 7.2 ±1 for from 6.2 to 8.2 or for a cell pH
of 6.8 to 7.4.