1. arguments and transfer proper communication among each other.



Language is essentially a mean of
communication to what place signs and sounds reveal an idea, action or an
object. The language history accelerated from many thousands of years and it
was primarily spoken, not written. However, with the advent of different
writing instruments and later on with printing techniques, language progressed
far off and developed its course. The language is a tool that is used to spread
knowledge, without which humans would have prevailed dull about the life in
general and the process of it. It is important to study language as a tool of
communication during their whole life and it is considered to have a vital role
to the human’s life. Furthermore, it is a powerful instrument that helps remove
misunderstandings by employing their arguments and transfer proper
communication among each other. In fact, language is ideological as people can
talk in a way to share their interests and support their opinions (Lyons,

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Language and Politics

Language is a very crucial device
and a key point to study as a means of persuading. Very often, politicians use
language as a tool to convince their public about their declarations and
statements.  Factually, language is a
significant theory for a speaker to some points that can support their claims
and attitudes about their specific interests. What are the fundamental
techniques of language influence in politics? Language, as many say, is an
important tool and powerful mean for politicians to show their attitudes and
claims toward their interest groups. Politicians, very often, employ different
linguistic strategies involving language manipulation as a powerful technique
of their political rhetoric to convince the society for their political goals
and achievements.  To their political
actions and debates, usually politicians use a wide level of rhetorical
instruments and also manipulative language to reach the goal toward the
audience.  Most of persuading language
techniques involve; phonology, syntactic, lexis, semantic, pragmatic and many
other manipulative devices for their campaign which a group of people consider
it to be ‘lies’ and ‘full of rubbish’. 
This project will examine some past political candidates who deployed
different strategies to achieve their political goals.

Language is the oldest and the
most powerful device that many politicians decide to employ when they beg to
persuade the public about their specific interests. Lopez (2014), states that
the skill of using linguistic assets in agreement with claims of each communication
form is a beneficial ability in reaching public or personal gains. The aim of
the political declarations, statements and speeches incite the public
reactions, to act in a way that would be beneficial and valuable for political
achievements. These attempts are taken very often by politicians who aspire the
public and address their preoccupations. With the implication of indirect
language manipulation, attentive speakers and skillful writers of these
statements, have consistently been apt to control the mind of people, influence
over their assumptions, point of views and public concerns to a point of making
people believe and admit false proclamations as accurate hypothesizes, or even
to enforce policies inconsistent with their concerns and interests (Thomans
& Wareing, 1999).

Gaining power and managing it
imposes a heavy connection in politics. The appropriate form for a politician
to reach and reinforce the consent and acceptance of the public opinion , and
also implementation of their policies depends on the necessary ability of the
politicians’ speech and the language they employ. The adequate technique to
achieve to the consent of the public is to form an ideology and to make public
voluntarily acknowledge as their own. According to what is said, a politician
can make an extensive scope of linguistic alternatives for his or her rhetoric
that may have an important and decisive impact in shaping and forming an
ideology about a specific subject that would make the public to willingly
welcome the statements of that politician to be true. Generally, political
leaders trick the presumptions of the public and the incitement of the
appropriate intellectual compositions by choosing or taking specific lexical features
or rhetoric approach to gain the reliability of their declarations and build up
and expand a certain ideology to public. This can lead to self-evident of
politicians’ assertions and allow them to be considered as powerful within the
claims that are made by them, as they believe in the same ideology that has
been developed and feed throughout the creation of the same diffusive event
(Thomas & Wareing, 1999). 

A wide range of linguistic
studies have intended on scrutinizing techniques and  kinds of language used by politicians to
increase ideologies in the public opinion and reach certain personal goals and
objectives (Edelman, 1977). Mostly, these studies focused on types of the rhetoric
and the use of these linguistic devices. The continual change in the meaning
and the frames of the political rhetoric, though, require new research. Recent
studies conducted on the rhetoric took the roots from the classical works, even
though it is well known that the dilemma, and the media by which, political
assertions work in the modern time through which, political eloquence is
frequently intervened to the public by electronic version of communication or
textual forms mostly making obscure the differences between politics and
entertainment (van Zoonen, 2005),  in
many aspects  are distinctive from the
classic observations.

As mentioned above, language is
used to a large extent as a persuasive instrument by politicians, particularly
in public speaking and addressing to masses, rooting from the Green noun
dedicated to a skillful addresser ‘rhetor’. In a way, rhetoric of the political
basically means a prepared paper to touch the public sentiments, to grasp their
attention and make them believe to the particular political premise. Political
statements authors heavily depend on a mixture of significant approaches such
as; diversion, using metaphors, asking questions, repeating distinctive phrases
to incite the sense of unity, using specific pronouns etc. (Atkinson,
2005).  These language techniques help us
to a better understanding of the political aims and goals by using these
appropriate techniques written by the specific skillful writers.

Very often, politicians use
distinctive rhetorical instruments that are created specially to persuade the
public to admit their arguments and take them as theirs. Distortion of the
truth is one of the rhetorical techniques that the politicians put in their
agenda to persuade their audience and it can be in different ways. For
instance, a politician can distort the truth of the actual problems and focus
in something else, giving the impression that everything is going well and they
must believe in that politician.  He or
she can design policies that will contradict the policies of the his or her
opponent, brining different ideologies and making it look worse and destructive
to the society. Political assault is very present also in Macedonia as well,
when a politician assaults each other personalities that would shift the
attention from the fundamental blemishes in the arguments of the speaker.

Metaphor is an allegory that
depicts a concern claiming that it is similar as another on the other way
unrelated object (Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary, 1999). It is a form
of analogy that is firmly connected to other rhetorical techniques that may
reach the impact of the audience throughout correlation, union or comparison
along with simile, hyperbole and allegory. Metaphor assists to make it clear
and obvious to the audience, which to some points are not very educated group
of people, the concepts that are very obscure to be understood and form an
ideology on the domain of that particular politician. Metaphors can carry a
skillful ideology, divide or bring together audience on the same topic of
agreement (Kumaran, 2013).  Furthermore,
a simile is an open and explicit comparison by involving the phrase; as or
than. Politicians regularly design their speech and convey their messages in a
jargon at avoiding betray any logical deviation and make connections between
unrelated objects, thus, to achieve an impact. Public perception about these
political speeches is mostly considered to be ‘lies’ and not truth worthy while
a group of people accept as true concepts and act with their emotions.

Atkinson (2005) suggests that
political speaking need to be asserted genuinely. Repetitive phrases aids to
design the idea partaking in the speech look like ordinary scene to the
public.  Repeating different phrases will
convince the audience to admit the ideologies and the agendas that the
politician have in their goals to induce to the audience or certain group of
targeted audience. Restatement is one of the most powerful rhetorical
techniques to stimulate and get the public attention. By manipulating these
concepts, automatically we develop an ideology and convince the audience to
voluntarily admit it as they have done it by their own. A very tangible example
of the repetitive use of phrases in politics is slogans which imbues
significant and frequently appealing policies to the minds of the audience.
Beside the usage of slogans, political actors also usually operate with
anaphora technique. Anaphora is the repetition of phrases or different words at
the outset of continuous sentences. It also makes a sense of unity where people
commonly react firmly.

Pronouns as linguistic feature
are also employed to bear certain purposes and political aims. Pronouns can be
used the same way for the aim of clarifying and also for obscurities in a
specific case. For instance, the first person singular usage of the pronoun “I
advocate the responsible person for…” While adapting the first person plural
pronoun “We” may cause the aim to be status of the responsibility dismal. Advocating
in first person singular puts lots of pressure in the candidate and making him
or her at the focal point of the decision shaping the audiences’ mind that everything
is in the hand of the speaker. While usage of the plural pronoun “We” is more
wide, involving a wide range area of people and concepts, taking into
consideration that the authority and the management of the country is not in
the hands of only one person, but in general from the different perspectives
and adequate professional staff.

Different skillful instruments
are used in political assortments in their rhetoric of persuading their
audience for specific purposes or achievements. All these techniques are
created to incite the public admit or accept with what is being asserted.
Often, this public acknowledge is an ability of the politician trustworthy
appearance and use of their language in their speeches. Frequently, these
public speeches with their valuable usage of language appeal to their emotional
consequences what, later on; make them believe as their own.


Expected results

The aim of this project is to put
the typical rhetorical techniques, which often have been observed separately,
altogether and give to the audience instances about their political agendas,
portraying their policies to be righteousness and the appropriate option.
Political speeches show their capacity at using rhetorical techniques and
instruments despite the geographical, ideological or even social differences.
It is not that these devices are used only in the U.S but recently we see them
in our country as well. As you go through political campaigns either in live or
via TV, you can see politicians promising and asserting different concepts
toward their public at aiming to form their opinions and make them accept, even
though it could be deviated from the true reality. This show how rich is the
language in making politicians shows their figures as truths worthy and empathy
to the public emotions. Furthermore, usage of skillful rhetorical devices,
politicians appeals to the people minds and also attacks each other characters
to distort from the bigger problems. As you may see, in TV debates, candidates
focus more in attacking each other rather than showing their policies to the
public. It means that they try to preserve their ideologies and make themselves
look smart in front of the audience. Regardless of the public cultural,
ideological, geographical or historical backgrounds, can be convinced,
manipulated or even governed by the political actors.



This project on language and
politics looks into the use of language when it is necessary for developing and
reinforcing a politician’s power during his or her political actions, such as
in campaigns or statements. I examine how linguistic resources and devices are
used to manipulate, persuade, and, very often, distort reality. The use of
political language is to foster and strengthen events, people, and the politician’s
goals, and to conceive them in a desirable and filthy way to manipulate and
control the ideas and behavior of people.



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